Chaire sécable de l’IISMM-EHESS | Professeure invitée : Zana Çitak (Middle East Technical University, Ankara)

Zana Çitak
Institut d’études de l’Islam et des sociétés du monde musulman – IISMM
Chaire : sécable de l’IISMM






Zana Çitak (PhD, Boston University) is an Associate Professor in the Department of International Relations, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. She was a visiting fellow at the Kroc Institute of International Peace Studies at University of Notre Dame in Fall 2011. She published book chapters in Public Funding of Religions in Europe, ed. Francis Messner (Ashgate, 2015), Des maîtres et des dieux: écoles et religions en Europe, eds. Jean-Paul Willaime and Séverine Mathieu (Editions Belin, 2005); and De la séparation des églises et de l’état à l’avenir de la laïcité, eds. Jean Baubérot and Michel Wieviorka (Editions de l’Aube, 2005). Her articles have appeared in Millennium: Journal of International StudiesJournal of Balkan and Near Eastern StudiesGlobal Networks, International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, Annuaire Droit et Religions, Cahiers de l’obTic, Journal of Church and State, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, and Middle Eastern Studies. Dr.Çitak’s primary scholarly interests include nationalism, religion, and Islam in Europe.

Zana Çitak will take part of the Visiting Professors Program designed by EHESS, on proposal of Emmanuel Szurek (CETOBaC).



National Conceptions, Transnational Solidarities: Turkey, Islam, and Europe

This talk examines the interplay between the institutionalization of Islam in Europe and the transnationalism of Turkey’s Directorate for Religious Affairs, the Diyanet. Based on extensive fieldwork in Turkey and Austria, Belgium, France and Germany, it demonstrates not only the salience of the nation-state prerogative on the part of both European states and the Turkish state but also the tension between national conceptions of Muslim identity on both sides amidst transnational solidarities. It also argues that the European policies of de-transnationalization of the Muslim field in Europe also intersect, to a certain extent, with the Diyanet’s transnational politics vis-à-vis Turkish/Muslim immigrants in their common resistance to the deculturalization of Muslims in Europe. While European countries try to nationalize their respective Muslim communities into their cultural and juridical framework through reterritorialization, the Diyanet has increasingly deterritorialized its activities in an effort to preserve a Muslim identity engrained in Turkishness. Hence the coexistence of both a tension and mutual accommodation between Europe and Turkey.

Dans le cadre du séminaire mensuel du CETOBaC

  • Jeudi 11 Janvier 2024 10h30 – 12h30 – Salle 50, Bâtiment EHESS, Campus Condorcet, Aubervilliers


The Limits of the Post-Kemalist Paradigm’s Critique of Secularism in Turkey

The centrality of the critique of secularism in Turkey in the post-Kemalist paradigm cannot be over-stated. In fact, to the extent that secularism constitutes the foundation of the modern Turkish republic as well as the cornerstone of the worldview of the Kemalist elite, the post-Kemalists have considered it as the source of the fundamental cleavages in Turkish society and of the problems with democratization. In that, one could observe both liberal and Islamist post-Kemalist critiques of secularism in Turkey. It will argue that the post-Kemalist critique had the merit of problematizing some aspects of Turkish secularism, such as the existence of the Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet) in a secular state and the long-standing problems with equal citizenship based on the unequal treatment of non-Muslims as well as the Alevis in Turkey. However, the post-Kemalists, both liberal and Islamist, have proved to be particularly uncritical in their approach to Islam and Muslim actors’ potential and willingness to have an open, democratic and pluralist society. Again, they easily and quickly adopted the premises of some of the popular theoretical approaches marking the 1990s and 2000s such as “multiple modernities”, identity politics and criticisms of the secularization paradigm, which led them to increasingly look down upon universal values, freedom and equal citizenship. Lastly, they demonstrated an unequivocal consensus in criticizing and condemning the state and its role in guaranteeing the possibility of coexistence in our diverse societies.

Dans le cadre du séminaire « Histoire sociale et linguistique de la Turquie nationaliste » animé par Emmanuel Szurek

  • Mardi 16 Janvier 2024 de 12h30 à 14h30 – Salle A602, Bâtiment EHESS, Campus Condorcet, Aubervilliers

Institutionalization of Islam in Europe

The management of religious diversity has become one of the most significant issues facing European societies in the last few decades. The increasing use of religion as an instrument of immigration policies in Europe since the late 1980s has led to various trajectories of institutionalization of Islam in European countries. Defined broadly as the accommodation and recognition of the religious rights and practices of Muslims within the framework of the established church and state relations models in Europe, institutionalization of Islam involves in many cases the establishment of Muslim representative institutions, which have become the focal point of Muslims’ political participation and governmental promotion of one single interlocutor to speak on behalf of Muslims. Whether in the form of councils or forums, they have, for the most part, been seen as an attempt to create “national Islam”(s). This process tries, on the one hand, to emancipate Muslims in European societies from the influence of foreign governments such as Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria and Turkey as well as transnational Muslim networks such as the Muslim Brotherhood or the Muslim World League sponsored by the Saudi government. On the other hand, it also tries to stand against the tide of what Olivier Roy calls a “deculturalizing” Islam, that is, one increasingly dissociated from the original culture, within the context of globalization. I focus particularly on four instances of institutionalization in Europe: Islamische Glaubensgemeinschaft in Österrich (IGGiÖ) in Austria Exécutif des Musulmans de Belgique (EMB) in Belgium, Conseil Français du Culte Musulman (CFCM) in France, and Deutsche Islamkonferenz (DIK) in Germany.

Dans le cadre du séminaire d’itinéraires et de débats en études turques, ottomanes, balkaniques et centrasiatiques animé par Marc Aymes 

  • Jeudi 25 Janvier de 14h30 à 16h30 – Salle A602, Bâtiment EHESS, Campus Condorcet, Aubervilliers


Transformation of the State-Religion Relationship under the AKP: The Case of the Diyanet

The question of the state-religion relations can be seen as one of the central issues in relation to the transformation of the state in Turkey in the last decade. While there has been a widespread concern over the growing Islamization of society through AKP policies, the international context has also been marked by debates on the so-called “return of religion”. The scholarly literature on state-religion relations have also been considerably influenced by the international academic literature, which has been characterized by de-secularization thesis and post-secularism debates. This paper will investigate the changes in state-religion relations under the AKP rule with a particular focus on the Diyanet. It will argue that the Diyanet has been transformed to a considerable degree since its establishment in 1924 and that the last decade constitutes an important turning point in four respects: First, through the 2010 Law, the Diyanet has acquired a more elevated status in state hierarchy as well as a legal framework for its “outside mosque” and transnational activities. The legal infrastructure has also been reinforced by the recent presidential decrees. Second, the Diyanet has increasingly become a handy tool of the government for the legitimization of its policies and discourse such as during the abortion debate and on 15 July 2016 coup attempt and its aftermath. Third, it is also following Erdoğan’s temperament and policy line abroad, including a confrontational approach, a major deviation from its previous stance. Fourth, its self-assertion as a “transnational actor” is increasingly being replaced by an even more ambitious discourse of “global actorness”.

Dans le cadre du séminaire « Sociologie politique de la Turquie contemporaine. Approches Spatiales » animé par Emmanuel Szurek et Lucie Drechselová

  • Mardi 30 Janvier 2024 de 8h30 à 10h30 – Salle A602, Bâtiment EHESS, Campus Condorcet, Aubervilliers et en visioconférence sur BBB


Citer ce billet
Chargé de diffusion scientifique (2023, 8 décembre). Chaire sécable de l’IISMM-EHESS | Professeure invitée : Zana Çitak (Middle East Technical University, Ankara). IISMM. Consulté le 19 avril 2024, à l’adresse

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